HAARP Fact Sheet
What Is HAARP?
The High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is a program focused on the study of upper atmospheric and solar-terrestrial physics and Radio Science. The HAARP program operates a major Arctic ionosphere research facility on an Air Force owned site near Gakona, Alaska. Principal instruments installed at the HAARP Research Station include a high power, high-frequency (HF) phased array radio transmitter (known as the Ionosphere Research Instrument (IRI), used to stimulate small, well-defined volumes of ionosphere, and a large and diversified suite of modern geophysical research instruments including an HF ionosonde, ELF and VLF receivers, magnetometers, riometers, a UHF diagnostic radar and optical and infrared spectrometers and cameras which are used to observe the complex natural variations of Alaska’s ionosphere as well as to detect artificial effects produced by the IRI. Future plans include completion of the UHF radar to allow measurement of electron densities, electron and ion temperatures, and Doppler velocities in the stimulated region and in the natural ionosphere using incoherent scatter techniques.
Is HAARP Unique?
Humanity’s Greatest Secret: Dreams of the Universe
Text Also Requests General Assembly to Consider Question;
Urges Clean Up of Vieques Island, Release of Puerto Rican Political Prisoners
ALEDIA CENTENO RODRIGUEZ, Frente Patriotico Arecibeño, said her organization had spoken last year on the United States strategy to authorize a nuclear weapons production facility in Puerto Rico, in violation of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. She explained that Arecibo was home to the Arecibo National Astronomy and Ionospheric Centre (NAIC), which was used as an “ionospheric heater” [an array of antennae which are used for heating the uppermost part of the atmosphere]. Arecibo was also mentioned as a test-site for the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Programme (HAARP), in a patent filed by an individual in the United States, to conducted experiments related to ionospheric manipulation. HAARP could function as an anti-missile and anti-aircraft defence system, permit interception and disruption of communications, weather and submarine and subterranean communications, among other things. The HAARP patent papers also stated that the invention could “simulate and perform the same function as performed by the detonation of a heavy type nuclear device”.
She said Arecibo was also mentioned in connection with the Puerto Rico Karst Conservation Act, which included authorization for the deployment of a nuclear weapons production facility. Aerial photos taken in the region showed antenna-like devices directed towards the ground, present since the mid-1990s. The citizens of Arecibo had not been made aware of the consequences or possible effects of those atmospheric experiments. Statements found in the literature regarding those experiments admit to the use of laser rays aimed at the atmosphere and there have been witnesses to the use of such rays for decades. There was a high rate of cancer cases of unknown origin in that region.
She said documents from the United States Department of Defence and Energy, and the National Nuclear Security Administration appeared to be directed to the use of Puerto Rican territory for the production of nuclear weapons. On 17 May, a United States House Bill on the safety for Americans from nuclear weapons testing was introduced, which states that “alternate locations for nuclear testing were being considered”. The bill also stated that the Department of Energy, acting under the National Environmental Policy Act, would be responsible for handling cases of contamination in the United States. In addition, Puerto Rico was designated as a territory under the purview of the Radiological Assistance Programme, which was ready to intervene in cases of radioactive contamination. It would seem that that entity was in charge of the well-being of the people of Puerto Rico in case of a nuclear accident.
A document on land acquisition, available at the property registry of Puerto Rico, Arecibo Section, showed the consolidation of various estates into a single 114 acre estate purchased by the United States Government. More purchases would follow. The people of Arecibo were wary of the intentions of the Untied States Department of Defense, and denounced the fact that the people of Puerto Rico were not being included in plans that affected its security and future. The Committee was urged to refer the case of Puerto Rico to the General Assembly, and to take the necessary precautions to guarantee the security of the hemisphere.
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program
Near Gakona, Alaska
62°23’32.36″N 145° 8’31.81″W
High Power Auroral Stimulation Observatory
64° 52′ 19″ N 146° 50′ 33″ W
Chatanika Incoherent Scatter Facility
Poker Flats, Chatanika, Alaska
65° 7’2.84″N 147°27’33.62″W
Millstone Hill Radio Observatory
Westford, Massachusetts, USA
+42° 37′ 09.25″, -71° 29′ 28.49″
Platteville Atmospheric Observatory
Platteville, Colorado, USA
+40° 10′ 54″, -104° 43′ 30″
Voice of America
Delano, California, USA
Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia
+56° 7′ 9.70″, +46° 2′ 3.66″
Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics
51°45’35.99″N 102° 6’34.86″E
Special Astrophysical Observatory
of the Russian Academy of Science
Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic, Russia
Moskovskaja Oblast’ Istra, Russia
55° 0’26.41″N 83° 1’50.42″E
Near Nakhodka, Russia
Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory
Moskovskaja Oblast’ Pushchino, Russia
UTR-2 URAN (VLBI)
IRA Institute of Radio Astronomy NAS Ukraine
49°38’5.53″N 36°56’8.11″E (UTR-2)
49°40’27.47″N 36°17’32.24″E (URAN-1)
49°37’51.17″N 34°49’29.80″E (URAN-2)
51°28’20.66″N 23°49’36.92″E (URAN-3)
46°23’46.11″N 30°16’22.52″E (URAN-4)
European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association
Ramfjordmoen, Near Tromsø, Norway
+69° 35′ 10.94″, +19° 13′ 20.89″
ALWIN MST Radar
+69° 17′ 54.41″, +16° 2′ 31.48″
+69° 16′ 42.38″, +16° 00′ 33.36″
Leibniz Institute of Atmospheric Physics
54° 7’6.03″N 11°46’11.88″E
50°37’1.59″N 7° 7’46.87″E
Nerc MST Radar Facility
Capel Dewi, Carmarthenshire, Wales, United Kingdom
Near Aberystwyth, Wales, UK
+52° 25′ 28.26″, -4° 00′ 19.59″
Jicamarca Radio Observatory
11° 57′ 08.25″ S 76° 52′ 30.67″ W
São Luiz Space Observatory
Cruzeiro Santa Bárbara, Sao Luis-MA, Brasil
-2° 35′ 40.47″, -44° 12′ 35.90″
Jindalee Operational Radar Network
Laverton, West Australia
-28° 19′ 36.29″, +122° 0′ 18.84″
Jindalee Operational Radar Network
Longreach, Queensland, Australia
-23° 39′ 29.53″, +144° 8′ 49.58″
Northern Territory, Australia
Harold E. Holt Naval Communication Station
Exmouth, Western Australia
-21° 48′ 59.00″, +114° 9′ 56.00″
21°54’25.95″S 114° 7’46.57″E
National MST Radar Facility
Gadanki, near Tirupati, in southern Andra Pradesh, India
+13° 27′ 26.68″, +79° 10′ 30.74″
China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation
Ionospheric Laboratory, Xinjiang (Sinkiang) Region
Ionosphere Observation Network
Chung Li National Central University Taiwan
Taoyuan County, Jhongli City, Taiwan
MU Shigaraki Observatory
RISH, Kyoto University.
Uji City, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan
34°51’15.66″N 136° 6’24.49″E
Equatorial Atmosphere Radar
Sumatera Barat, Indonesia
National Institute of Aeronautics and Space
Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional (LAPAN)
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Ionosphere research facilities have been in continuous use since the 1950s to investigate fundamental physical principles which govern the earth’s ionosphere, so that present and future transmission technologies may take into account the complexities of this highly variable medium. In addition to HAARP, the United States has operated two other ionosphere research sites in recent years, one in Puerto Rico, near the Arecibo Observatory, and the other (known as HIPAS) in Alaska near Fairbanks. Both of these facilities were built with both active and passive radio instrumentation similar to those at the HAARP facility. Interest in the ionosphere is not limited to the US: a five-country consortium operates the European Incoherent Scatter Radar site (EISCAT), a premier ionosphere research facility located in northern Norway near Tromso. Facilities also are located at Jicamarca, Peru; near Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod (“SURA”) and Apatity, Russia; near Kharkov, Ukraine and in Dushanbe, Tadzhikistan. All of these installations have as their primary purpose the study of the ionosphere, and most employ the capability of stimulating to a varying degree small, localized regions of the ionosphere in order to study methodically, and in a detailed manner what nature produces randomly and regularly on a much larger scale. HAARP is unique to most existing facilities due to the combination of a research tool which provides electronic beam steering, wide frequency coverage and high effective radiated power collocated with a diverse suite of scientific observational instruments.
Who is Building HAARP?
Technical expertise and procurement services as required for the management, administration and evaluation of the program are being provided cooperatively by the Air Force (Air Force Research Laboratory), the Navy (Office of Naval Research and Naval Research Laboratory), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Since the HAARP facility consists of many individual items of scientific equipment, both large and small, there is a considerable list of commercial, academic and government organizations which are contributing to the building of the facility by developing scientific diagnostic instrumentation and by providing guidance in the specification, design and development of the IRI. BAE Advanced Technologies (BAEAT) is the prime contractor for the design and construction of the IRI. Other organizations which have contributed to the program include the University of Alaska, Stanford University, Cornell University, University of Massachusetts, UCLA, MIT, Dartmouth University, Clemson University, Penn State University, University of Tulsa, University of Maryland, SRI International, Northwest Research Associates, Inc., and Geospace, Inc.
What is the Value of Ionosphere Research?
The ionosphere begins approximately 35 miles above the earth’s surface and extends out beyond 500 miles. In contrast to the dense atmosphere close to the earth, which is composed almost entirely, of neutral gas, the thin ionosphere contains both neutral gas and a small number of charged particles known as ions and electrons. This ionized medium can distort, reflect and absorb radio signals, and thus can affect numerous civilian and military communications, navigation, surveillance and remote sensing systems in many varied ways. For example, the performance of a satellite-to-ground communication link is affected by the ionosphere through which the signals pass. AM broadcast programs, which in the daytime can be heard only within a few tens of miles from the station, at night sometimes can be heard hundreds of miles away, due to the change from poor daytime to good nighttime reflection from the ionosphere. A long-range HF communication link which uses multiple hops or reflections from the ionosphere and ground, often experiences amplitude fading caused by interference between signals which have traveled from the transmitter to the receiver by two (or more) different ionosphere paths.
Since the sun’s radiation creates and maintains the ionosphere, sudden variations in this radiation such as those caused by solar flares can affect the performance of radio systems. Sometimes these natural changes are sufficient to induce large transient currents in electric power transmission grids, causing widespread power outages. Lightning is known to cause substantial heating and ionization density enhancement in the lower ionosphere, and there are indications that ground-based HF transmitters, including radars and strong radio stations, also modify the ionosphere and influence the performance of systems whose radio paths traverse the modified region. Perhaps the most famous example of the latter is the “Luxembourg” effect, first observed in 1933. In this case a weak Swiss radio station appeared to be modulated with signals from the powerful Luxembourg station, which was transmitting at a completely different frequency. Music from the Luxembourg station was picked up at the frequency of the Swiss station.
The continual growth in the number of civilian and military satellite systems whose performances can be affected by changes in ionosphere conditions stimulates research on characterizing and understanding those effects, whether they be natural (solar related) or the result of controlled local modification of the ionosphere, using ground HF transmitters. The HAARP facility is capable of supporting research in both these areas of interest, by utilizing its flexible HF transmitting array and its suite of radio and optical diagnostic instruments for active experimental research. Effectively, the diagnostic instruments alone constitute a space-weather observatory (on the ground), which provides real-time data on the state of the dynamic ionosphere over much of Alaska.
Why is the DoD Involved?
The Department of Defense (DoD) conducts Arctic research to ensure the development of the knowledge, understanding and capability to meet national defense needs in the Arctic. Interest in ionosphere research at HAARP stems both from the large number of communication, surveillance and navigation systems that have radio paths which pass through the ionosphere, and from the unexplored potential of technological innovations which suggest applications such as detecting underground objects, communicating to great depths in the sea or earth, and generating infrared and optical emissions. Expanding our knowledge about the interactions of signals passing through or reflecting from the ionosphere can help to solve future problems in the development of DoD systems, and could as well enhance the utilization of commercial systems which rely on the expedient transfer of real-time communications.
Why Gakona, Alaska?
During HAARP’s environmental impact study, Gakona was identified as one of two DoD-owned, Alaskan locations which satisfied the site selection criteria of being within the auroral zone, near a major highway for year-round access, away from densely settled areas and their electrical noise and lights that could interfere with sensitive research measurements, on relatively flat terrain, of realistic and reasonable construction and operation costs, as well as minimal environmental impacts. On October 18, 1993 following the July 15, 1993 issuance of the Air Force’s Environmental Impact Statement which evaluated potential environmental effects of constructing and operating the HAARP facility, a Record of Decision (ROD) signed by the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Installations selected Gakona as the location for the HAARP facility.
Location of the HAARP Facility
The access road is located at Milepost 11.3 on the Tok highway. The geographic coordinates of the HF antenna array are approximately 62.39 degrees (North) latitude, 145.15 degrees (West) longitude. The geomagnetic coordinates for the facility are 63.09 degrees (North) latitude and 92.44 degrees (West) longitude.
What is the IRI and what does it transmit?
Basically, the IRI is what is known as a phased array transmitter. It is designed to transmit a narrow beam of high power radio signals in the 2.8 to 10 MHz frequency range. Its antenna is built on a gravel pad having dimensions of 1000′ x 1200′ (about 33 acres). There are 180 towers, 72′ in height mounted on thermopiles spaced 80′ apart in a 12 x 15 rectangular grid. Each tower supports near its top, two pairs of crossed dipole antennas, one for the low band (2.8 to 8.3 MHz), the other for the high band (7 to 10 MHz). The antenna system is surrounded by an exclusion fence to prevent possible damage to the antenna towers or harm to large animals. An elevated ground screen, attached to the towers at the 15′ level, acts as a reflector for the antenna array while allowing vehicular access underneath to 30 environmentally-controlled transmitter shelters spaced throughout the array. Each shelter contains 6 pairs of 10 kW transmitters, for a total of 6 x 30 x 2 x 10 kW = 3600 kW available for transmission. The transmitters can be switched to drive either the low or high band antennas. Electric prime power is provided from an on-site power plant housing five, 2500 kW generators, each driven by a 3600 hp diesel engine. Four generators are required for operation of the IRI and the fifth is held as a spare. From a control room within the Operations Center, the transmission from each of the 180 crossed-dipole antennas is adjusted in a precise manner under computer control. In this manner, the complete array of antennas forms a narrow antenna pattern pointed upward toward the ionosphere. The transmitted signal diverges (spreads out) as it travels upward and is partially absorbed, at an altitude which depends on the transmitted HF frequency, in a small volume several tens of miles in diameter and a few hundred meters thick directly over the facility. The remainder of the transmitted signal either reflects back toward the earth or passes through the ionosphere into space, continuing to diverge as it does so. By the time it reaches the ionosphere, the intensity of the HF signal is less than 3 microwatts (0.000003 watt) per cm2, thousands of times less than the Sun’s natural electromagnetic radiation reaching the earth and hundreds of times less, even, than the variations in intensity of the Sun’s natural ultraviolet (UV) energy which creates the ionosphere.
How safe are these transmissions?
Because the antenna pattern of the IRI array has been tailored to transmit its signal upward rather than toward the horizon, radio field strengths at ground level, including areas directly under the antenna array, are calculated to be smaller than Radio Frequency Radiation (RFR) standards allow for human exposure. This is possible because the individual transmitters are spaced apart over 33 acres so that the concentration of radio fields never exceeds these nationally recognized safety standards. Electromagnetic field strength measurements have been made throughout the development of the facility, beginning in 1994 and regularly thereafter. Measurements on the ground, directly under and around the array and at multiple points on-site and off-site have verified compliance with RFR standards as well as with all requirements for safety mandated in the EIS Record of Decision. At the point of closest public access on the Tok Highway, for example, the measured fields are ten-thousand times smaller than permitted by the RFR standards and hundreds of times smaller than typically found near AM broadcast station antennas in many urban areas. The strength of these fields continues to decrease in a rapid manner at greater distances from the facility.
What about aircraft?
While the signals along the ground are well-below adopted safety levels, the signals transmitted above the antenna array may have sufficient strength to interfere with electronic equipment in aircraft flying nearby. Therefore, to ensure the safety of all flight operations in the vicinity of HAARP, the facility employs an aircraft alert radar (AAR) to automatically shut off appropriate transmissions when aircraft are detected either within or approaching a defined safety zone around the facility. Flight tests are conducted regularly to demonstrate the capability of the HAARP radar to detect even very small targets. Research operations are not conducted unless the AAR is operating satisfactorily.
What is the potential for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)?
Every radio transmitting facility has the potential to interfere with other radio spectrum users. To determine the potential for HAARP’s transmissions to interfere inadvertently with other spectrum users such as Alaskan TV, AM/FM radio, ham radio, or even with HAARP’s own sensitive radio receiving equipment, a comprehensive RFI study was conducted during the environmental impact study phase. Theory predicted that in several worst-case scenarios, interference may be encountered by some nearby users sharing the RF spectrum. On the other hand, the real world experiences of similar ionosphere research instruments and radar diagnostics employed elsewhere in the world have shown that compatible operations are practical. Included in HAARP’s Spectrum Certification from the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) are commitments to a mitigation program that includes the use of state-of-the-art transmitters with stringent requirements for minimizing out-of-band transmissions; proper orientation of the HF antenna array and adoption of operating procedures, including beam steering, to minimize array side-lobes; employing special techniques such as waveform shaping, filtering and antenna null placement; and working with affected spectrum users, if any, to reach mutually agreeable solutions. A local phone number (907) 822-5497 begin_of_the_skype_highlighting FREE (907) 822-5497 end_of_the_skype_highlighting permits anyone believing they have interference from HAARP to contact the Gakona site operations center. In addition, an automated spectrum monitor is installed to allow the HAARP control operator to monitor nearby spectrum usage to assist in frequency selection for avoiding potential interference.
What is the RFI Resolution Advisory Committee?
The Record of Decision stipulated than an RFI Resolution Committee (“Committee”) would be formed with local representation, to help mitigate potential RFI issues. The local community-appointed resident would serve as an ombudsman to ensure community satisfaction with the RFI mitigation approaches undertaken by HAARP. The purpose of the Committee is to provide a forum for the thorough review of confirmed RFI reports. This Committee has met at least yearly since December 6, 1994. Committee members are from the following organizations (one from each): Community-appointed resident, Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA), ALASCOM, Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation, Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., American Radio Relay League (ARRL), Coast Guard, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Fish & Wildlife (Federal), Fish & Game (State), National Park Service, HAARP Environmental Liaison Officer, HAARP operational staff (site supervisor or delegate), HAARP Program-appointed chairperson, National Park Service, Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and the combined Alaska military command (ALCOM) frequency coordinator.
To ensure that all concerns, including aircraft safety as well as radio frequency interference issues, are addressed completely, a Developmental Prototype (DP) was completed in 1994. The DP consisted of a 6 x 8 (48 antenna element) array of crossed dipole antennas. A 3 x 6 (18 antenna elements) subset of these antennas was energized by 18 pairs of 10 kW transmitters contained in three separate shelters, thus supplying up to a maximum of 360 kW. Prime power for this initial array was obtained from three portable 350 kW diesel generators.
During 1998, the DP was upgraded to include transmitters for all 48 of the antenna elements that were originally installed. This Filled Developmental Prototype (FDP) was capable of producing 960 kW of total transmitter power. Measurements of the HF fields in the vicinity of the FDP antenna array showed that field intensities everywhere, including within the FDP beam, were below recommended international safety limits for fly-by-wire aircraft. Nonetheless, the FDP was only operated in conjunction with the aircraft alert radar, to insure that no high power transmissions occurred when there was local flight traffic. Operation and test of the FDP verified the system engineering design and helped develop interference mitigation procedures that are now integrated into all research operations involving the IRI.
HAARP has developed an extensive set of diagnostic instrumentation to support ionosphere research at auroral latitudes, to characterize the processes produced in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere by high power radio waves and to assess the potential of emerging ionosphere/radio technology for DoD applications. While some of these scientific instruments are collocated with the IRI at the research facility, others, due to geometrical considerations, are located off-site at various distances from the facility. One of the primary active on-site instruments is the HF ionosonde, which transmits in the 1-30 MHz band and is used to provide scientists with information about the electron density profile in the ionosphere. Another is the UHF ionosphere radar which transmits radio wave signals in the 430 – 450 MHz band and which will eventually be expanded to provide incoherent scatter capability.
Among the passive on-site instruments are two magnetometers for the measurement of the earth’s magnetic field and its variations, and two riometers (relative ionosphere opacity meter) to sense ionosphere absorption of the celestial background electromagnetic radiation. The radio spectrum from 100 kHz to 1 GHz is being recorded to determine frequency of usage and to monitor HAARP transmissions to ensure adherence to FCC and NTIA requirements. Other passive on-site instruments include sensitive optical imagers and photometers, ELF/VLF receivers, and Total Electron Content receivers. Data obtained from these scientific instruments are readily accessible on the internet in near real time, allowing scientists to observe and participate in the investigations directly from their laboratories. In addition to the instruments specifically developed by HAARP, a number of diagnostics potentially are available through other federal agencies and the University of Alaska’s Geophysical Institute.
Use of Local Resources
The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) has played a major role in the development of diagnostics and coordination of Arctic programs with the US scientific community. UAF led a consortium of universities and industries which provided support in the design and development of the Gakona facility and its associated scientific instruments. BAE Advanced Technologies, the prime contractor for the IRI, utilized Eric Goozen for initial site survey work. Ahtna Construction, Inc., a Glennallen based contractor, has contributed very extensively to the development of the facility. Ahtna currently provides housekeeping and security services. Anchorage-based engineering firms Duane Miller & Associates and USKH prepared the civil and pad design work and conducted the on-site testing and evaluation. Arctic Foundation of Anchorage designed and manufactured, and Kiewit Pacific Company installed thermopiles in the pad, using Amtec, Inc. to survey the thermopile locations and Tester Drilling and EBA Engineering to provide drilling support. Acme Fence Company installed fencing, using the services of Mark Lappi to survey the fence lines and B&B Plumbing to steam thaw the ground for drilling. City Electric, Inc. erected the towers, antennas, and ground screen. Pacific Detroit Diesel and Valley Diesel refurbished and installed the 2.5 MW diesel generators which are used to power the HF transmitters. Service Oil provides fuel oil. Copper Valley Telephone installed the telephone lines, and Copper Valley Electric supplies commercial housekeeping power. Bishop & Sons Enterprises supplies water, while CBS Service provides trash removal and sewage disposal. Harley McMahon flew sorties to test the capabilities of the aircraft alert radar and provide the opportunity for aerial photography.
Current/Future Operations at the HAARP Research Facility
Construction of the full IRI was completed in early 2007. In the near term, emphasis is being placed on validating the performance of the complete IRI to include compliance with all specifications for interference mitigation and safety of operations. Initial IRI testing began during March 2007.
Both on- and off-site scientific, observational instruments are now providing data on the natural high latitude ionosphere. A complete listing of these scientific instruments is available.
In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), an environmental impact statement (EIS) evaluated the consequences of constructing and operating the HAARP research facility in Alaska. The EIS discusses impacts on such diverse topics as electromagnetic and radio frequency interference, vegetation, wetlands, wildlife, air quality, subsistence, cultural resources, atmosphere and others.
State and federal environmental regulatory agencies were consulted to identify issues, and additional input was solicited from the public during scoping meetings held in Anchorage and Glennallen, Alaska in August 1992. A draft of the EIS was prepared and distributed to the public and to specific organizations on March 12, 1993. Public hearings were held in Glennallen and Anderson, municipalities close to the sites under consideration. The final EIS was released to the public on July 15, 1993 and the Record of Decision selecting Gakona, Alaska as the site for the HAARP Ionosphere Research Facility was signed on October 18, 1993.
In addition to the NEPA process described above, the HAARP facility complies with all applicable state and federal regulations that are appropriate for its construction and operation.
An updated version of this fact sheet will be issued as often as program changes warrant to keep interested parties appraised of significant developments in regard to HAARP. Any individual seeking additional information about HAARP, or wishing to provide comments regarding HAARP, may contact:
377th Air Base Wing Public Affairs
2000 Wyoming Blvd. SE
Kirtland Air Force Base, NM 87117
Updated January 24, 2012
For anyone still “on the fence” about weather modification / manipulation :
all links below should satisfy MOST questions: save the pdf’s before they’re gone for good from the net!
Hypothesis / Theory — what I think is being done:
I propose that a series of ground based stations , using a HAARP type technology (i.e. a ground based station that emits a high frequency or low frequency) .. is being used to produce pulses which we see appear on RADAR for a short time.
It would appear this high frequency electromagnetic pulse is done to “heat” the atmosphere above each station …. possibly to create an “artificial ionospheric mirror = AIM” WITHIN THE ATMOSPHERE, maybe to have some other yet unknown effect OTHER than weather modification, or these pulses could quite possibly be done for the sole purpose of engineering the weather.
The “goal” of these frequency flashes has not yet been determined.
Also, it has been discovered that a global campaign is underway, to spray particulate matter into the air .. via aircraft distribution .. in order to aid in frequency propagation and transmission… substances like Aluminum, Barium, Strontium, and Silver Iodide (just to name a few). Commonly called “chemtrails” this “cloud seeding” is picking up in pace.
Observed so far :
1. Flashes into the high RF appear on RADAR — sometimes in the same geometric modulation patterns spoken about in HAARP research papers… they appear coordinated with other stations, and not all stations in the same area produce the flash.
2. SEVERAL times, too often to be a coincidence….we see severe weather (tornadoes , damaging winds, and hail) hit these frequency flash epicenters. This usually occurs within 48 hours of the high frequency being emitted from the ground based station (usually a ground based NEXRAD RADAR or similar produces the pulse).
I believe this pulsed heating, done from the ground based stations, is INDUCING or ACCENTING current coming storm systems. The energy pulses may even DRAW the coming yet-unformed storm systems to each station emitting a “Circle Sweep / HAARP ring”.
It also would appear that the “geometric modulations” [circle sweeps/haarp rings/sawtooth sweeps/scalar squares] are done to increase the amplitude of the signal being emitted.
Whatever the frequency is.. its showing as a quick flash into the high RF.. and as the flash intensity increases .. so does its geometric modulation appearance on the screen — ultimately the higher and more frequent the flashes = the stronger and longer lasting the storm that comes to the flash.
You can read below about the Fourier heat dissipation analysis. The square , rectangle, sawtooth, and circle sweeps can be explained in the Stanford VLF geometric modulation papers.
Both linked here:
geometric modulation (circle sweeps, sawtooth sweeps using a HAARP type technology):
download the stanford PDF here:
Fourier Heat dissipation analysis explaining the pie shape of a common heated “circle sweep/HAARP ring):
Creating a ‘Tiltable AIM’ in the atmosphere using a ground based station (possibly acting as ‘mini-HAARP’ relays) :
Read more on Scalar / Plasma / Electromagnetism via frequency VLF and HF and the ‘Scalar Square’ that could be being produced by the AMISR :
At around page 147 in the report or 156-157 in the .pdf.. “Scalar Squares” possible culprit found:
Download the above .pdf here:
compare: AMISR “3D” RADAR high frequency scan vs. a typical ‘scalar square’ outbreak seen on regular RADAR:
Screenshot of the possible “scalar square” producer: a HF scan done from AMISR to “3D image” using RADAR inside an area of the atmosphere:
Here is a great example of a past forecast using the ‘HAARP ring / Circle Sweep / Scalar Square” method:
Sunday, April 22 , 2011 — St. Louis Lambert International airport was hit directly with a tornado.
On April 19 2011 .. 2 1/2 days BEFORE Lambert St. Louis was hit.. I issued this alert for LAMBERT AIRPORT DIRECTLY..
here is footage of that direct hit from INSIDE the airport from April 22, 2011 …
Several dozen more examples / confirmations of HAARP rings being hit directly.. listed here:
Here is another confirmed in a video mashup:
Scalar RADAR and its effects:
HAARP in the MSM (history channel):
How HAARP technology can make an earthquake:
Russian parliament member “takes credit” for CAUSING the Japan earthquake and tsunami in 2011 using a “new silent weapon” that can quote “sink continents”:
US Navy involved:
Link between HAARP earth-penetrating tomography technology and earthquakes.
The High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) is a congressionally initiated program jointly managed by the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy. The United States Congressional records show that HAARP is funded by the US government. The U.S. Senate set aside $15 million dollars in 1996 (Clinton administration) to develop the ability to penetrate the earth with signals bounced off of the ionosphere. This earth-penetrating-tomography has since been developed and used by the US government to look inside the planet to a depth of many kilometers in order to locate underground munitions, minerals and tunnels. The problem is that the frequencies used by HAARP for earth-penetrating tomography is also within the frequency range most cited for disruption of earth’s own electromagnetic field.
HAARP patents states that HAARP can beam radio energy into the Auroral electrojet, the curved, charged-particle stream formed at high latitudes where the solar wind interacts with Earth’s magnetic field. The radio energy then disperses over large areas through ductlike regions of the ionosphere, forming a virtual antenna that can be thousands of miles in length.
Such an ELF antenna can emit waves penetrating as deeply as several kilometers into the ground, depending on the geological makeup and subsurface water conditions in a targeted area. HAARP uses ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to beam pulses of polarized high-frequency radio waves into the ionosphere. These pulses can be finely tuned and adjusted so that the bounced ground penetrating beam can target a very specific area and for a specific length of time. Beaming a very large energy beam into the ground for an extended period can cause an earthquake. After all, an earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth’s crust that creates seismic wave resonances. The same array of antennas that are used by HAARP for ground penetrating tomography can also be used to penetrate deep into the ground and cause an earthquake anywhere around the World.
Geophysical events like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions – the kinds of things that may already be on the edge of discharge – can, with the right resonant energies added into the system, cause them to overload and actually fracture. Former U.S. Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen actually made the statement regarding weapons of mass destruction and the idea of generating earthquakes artificially. In a April 28, 1997 DoD News Briefing at the Conference on Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and U.S. Strategy at the Georgia Center, Mahler Auditorium, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. Cohen stated: “Others are engaging even in an eco- type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves.”
United States Patent 5041834 – Artificial ionospheric mirror composed of a plasma layer which can be tilted.
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ALTERING A REGION IN THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE, IONOSPHERE, AND/OR MAGNETOSPHERE
the USGS seeding the clouds to make it snow:
A few of the weather modification COMPANIES in operation today inside the USA:
Here is a very long list of links, pdf files from institutions like stanford, leicester university, cornell, University of Mass., etc.. and from several military and .gov sites
some links work, others are “down” but still included to prove they DID exist. These things have a way of disappearing off the net, so download them and MIRROR them on other file sharing sites if you can.
University of Leicester — Ionospheric Heating
Defense Secretary from the 1990′s William Cohen speaking on the subject of HAARP –
US Navy electronic warfare :
Lower ionosphere heating / geometric modulation / circle sweeps, sawtooth sweeps, square wave, rectangle wave:
Stanford VLF AWESOME network:
Websites of each known facility:
Sura Ionospheric Heating Facility
The EISCAT Associates
Their Facility -
EISCAT Headquarters are located at Kiruna in Sweden
The EISCAT Scientific Association,
PO Box 812,
S-981 28 KIRUNA
————————————————–cloud seeding generator pictured on the NAIWMC website:
VLF and VHF station location websites:
Arecibo, Puerto Rico
Millstone Hill, USA
Pic of Haystack facility and more info:
(search for scatter)
The Institute possesses a complex of unique astrophysical equipment deployed in the Sayan Mountains, especially the Siberian solar radiotelescope, a large solar vacuum telescope, an incoherent scatter radar, as well as a network of astrophysical laboratories throughout the territory of Siberia.
Upper Ionosphere changes HF (high frequency) into ULF (ultra low frequency)
In essence.. this shows that one can send a HF (high frequency) signal into the upper ionosphere with HAARP, and it “transforms” into a ULF ultra low frequency… and vice versa.. a LOW frequency modulates into the HIGH frequency!
here is the link to the “Efficiency scaling” HF transformation into ULF/VLF/ELF via the ionosphere.
here is the link to the “HAARP description pdf” I am showing…
Another link on MU, Japan
———————————————-picture below of “chemtrails” i.e. aerosols sprayed from airplanes to induce or aid in frequency manipulation of the cloud environment:
USA (Besides HAARP)
HIPAS — High Power Auroral Stimulation Observatory
Located near Fairbanks Alaska
ULCAR stations :
Papers, .pdfs, and documents regarding various aspects of frequency and weather modification:
CERN and HAARP –
Books and older publications covering weather modification:
These shots below come from a Navy .mil website .. clearly showing the “HAARP ring / Circle sweep” pattern and circumference .. done using electromagnetic modulation from a ground based station.. VLF and UHF.
“By modulating the ambient current flowing in the ionosphere, e.g., the auroral electrojet, it is possible to generate extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) radiation. This ionospheric modification technique can provide such waves for probing both the Earth and the ionosphere- magnetosphere. The modification occurs in the lower D-region and can provide information about the ambient conditions in one of the least diagnosed regions of the ionosphere.
The electrojet is modulated by using a high frequency heater (a few MHZ) with the power modulated at the desired ELF/VLF frequency to heat the ionospheric electrons in the lower D-region. Figure 1a shows a sketch of the heater and heated region. The heated region is typically at 75 km (though this depends upon the carrier frequency) and can be 30 km in diameter and a few km thick. Viewed from above (see Figure 1b) the heated region is a roughly circular patch. The smoothness of the heated region depends upon the antenna radiation pattern as well as D-region conditions. The heating increases the electron-neutral collision rate which changes the conductivities. Since on ELF time scales the ambient electric field is constant, modulating the conductivity produces a current modulated at the same frequency. At these altitudes the conductivity change is predominantly in the Hall conductivity. If the ambient electric field, E, is in ±y direction, a time varying current perturbation is generated, j, in the ±x direction (Fig. 1b). The time varying current launches waves both up and down the Earth’s magnetic field. In the simulations shown here, we start with a time-varying current and study the downward propagating waves and how they couple into the Earth-ionospheric wave guide.
The animations show 5 different representations of the same simulation. The simulation uses a time-varying current perturbation (1 kHz) in the D-region at 75 km. The current is in the magnetic east-west direction. The Earth’s magnetic field is vertical. The simulation box is 1800 by 1800 by 120 km. Isosurfaces are shown for the absolute value of the horizontal magnetic field ABSB and of the vertical electric field ABSEZ. Also shown is the east-west magnetic field in the near-field BX1 and in the far-field BX2. Since the field amplitude falls off with distance, BX1 uses a order-of-magnitude larger isosurface value than BX2 to emphasize the field close to the site. The north- south magnetic field is shown in BY1 and BY2. These plots look slightly different from the absolute value plots where both the positive and negative surfaces were shown. Also BX and BY do have a different orientation of the their radiation patterns. The direction of the radiation is determined by the total horizontal field shown in ABSB and by the vertical electric field shown in ABSEZ. The radiation pattern in the earth-ionosphere waveguide is a combination of a linear dipole antenna and a right-hand circular antenna. At ELF frequencies because of low D-region absorption the dipole is dominant. The dipole radiates in the magnetic east-west direction.
Because 1 kHz is below cutoff the mode in the waveguide is a TEM mode. The mode consists of a horizontal B field perpendicular to the direction of propagation and a vertical electric field. With perfect conductors, the mode is uniform in the vertical direction. As the wave propagates in the waveguide, the top of the wave is approximately at the bottom of the ionosphere. Above the heated region, waves are also launched along the Earth’s magnetic field. In the near-field ( BX1 and BY1) one can see the pulse being radiated downward. It strikes the ground and reflects back up to the ionosphere. Part of the energy propagates up the field lines into the ionosphere. This is the bubble seen rising up. The D-region is highly collisional and damps this wave. Looking at BX2 and BY2 one can see that the energy mainly stays in the waveguide. If one looks closely at the top of the wave in the waveguide the wave appears to be curved. The waveguide mode is coupling into the bottom of the D-region and driving a whistler mode up the field lines. The whistlers have a much lower velocity than the waveguide mode and can only propagate along the field lines. This acts to curve the top of the waves. These waves help form the bubble that propagates up the field line. Because of this, the diameter of the bubble is much larger than the heated region.
Above the heated region in ABSEZ one can see a pair of coils revolving around each other. These are the currents that flow up and down the Earth’s magnetic field forming the current loops associated with the waves propagating up the field lines. Finally, EZ1 is a blow-up of the high-altitude portion of the vertical electric field for positive values of the electric field; the current loop is more clearly seen.”
More .pdfs and information on weather modification via frequency and aerosols:
Ionospheric modification and ELF/VLF
wave generation by HAARP
recently we’ve been calling them “HAARP clouds”.. long ribbed cloud formations like ripples of water….. up until this point it was speculation.. BUT….. here we see these HAARP clouds listed in a HAARP MIT researchers public files from MIT…… check it out.. you decide… and make SURE to walk the parent directory !!!
photo below was taken by a MIT HAARP researcher while in Alaska .. several more of his own personal shots at the above link:
check out the OTHER files in this MIT backdoor.
check the ‘public’ file..
listen to the HAARP whislter that is listed in this MIT researchers cache :
Again, the above link is a back end MIT page.. download whatever you can before its gone!!! you should for sure check the UROP file as well…
BE SURE TO SEARCH THE PARENT DIRECTORIES !
MIT/HAARP the ‘BLACK MAGIC’ chart on frequency wavelength propagation http://web.mit.edu/rezy_p/Public/downloads/smithchart.pdf
HAARP JOINT SERVICES PROGRAM PLANS AND ACTIVITIES: Air Force Geophysics Laboratory and Office of Naval Research, February 1990 (PDF)
Link obtained from:
Popular Mechanics Magazine:
The World’s 18 Strangest Military Bases
HAARP Research Station – not much info, but says:
“In past interviews, HAARP’s operators readily admit they’re researching potential defense applications.”
Modification of the Ionosphere by VLF Wave-Induced Electron Precipitation
Title : A Diagnostic System for Studying Energy Partitioning and Assessing the Response of the Ionosphere During HAARP Modification Experiments.
“The HAARP facility is classically referred to as an HF ionospheric modification facility. HF ionospheric modification entails the use of high power, high-frequency (~2-15MHZ) radio waves to modify the earth’s ionosphere.”
Title : High-Energy Electron Beam-Induced Ionospheric Modification Experiments
VLF and UHF station in Norway:
A volcanic Island in the pacific west of Mexico and the northern direction is directly in line with the lower san andreas fault. Here is the google earth location.
28 53 23.06 N , 118 16 50.20 W
EAR (Equatorial Atmospheric Radar) SUMATRA made by JAPAN (circular again)
Taiwan, CHINA (dish on H-shape building, antenna grid not far)
Burt Plain, AUSTRALIA (strange)
Poker Flat, Alaska, USA (AMISR Advanced Modulator Incoherent Scatter Radar)
AMISR, Resolute Bay, CANADA
74.728138, -94.924242 (dish)
Antennas everywhere following the roads(phased array) the whole place is a grid!
Futur “MU” from JAPAN (Incoherent Scatter) site in ANTARTICA
Facilities via links:
Diagram showing ground based station using frequency to heat an area above or around it:
screenshot of a flash into the high RF during hurricane Irene 2011… the CENTER of the ring received tornadoes, hail, and damaging winds approx 2 days AFTER the hurricane was gone.. 3 days after the flash…
Screenshot from Louisiana unknown date:
Screenshot of Kentucky Ohio 2 days before it was hit by Damaging winds, Hail, and a Tornado:
Two days before Texas was hit with EXTREME hail and tornadoes.. Four FEET of hail to north texas and mid texas .. April 2012:
DIDBase list here
It’s the loudest sound you’ll come across 0n the short wave now. 8.545 megahertz is one. 8.570 …this is before 12:00 noon. 12.815 and 12.850, 17.110, 18.370 MHz. Then in the afternoon and sometimes after 6:00 PM you will hear it on 17.110 and other frequencies as well. So we’re getting really blasted with this thing
Dr. Moshe Alamaro (worked with Dr. Eastlund in weather modification / engineering) As a graduate student and later as a Research Scientist at the MIT Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences (EAPS) Moshe Alamaro helped to design, build and manage the MIT Air-Sea Interaction Lab where he supervised six students.
Alamaro, M.; “My Journey to Engineer the Weather”, MIT Alumni News and Views, What Matters: June 2009.
Armstrong, R., Glenn G.J., Alamaro, M. “Coordination, research needed in weather science”, Physics Today, Vol 60, Page 10, June 2007.
Alamaro, M., Emanuel, KA, McGillis, W.: “Experimental Investigation of Air-Sea Transfers at High Wind Speed,” forthcoming in Journal of Fluid Mechanics.
With Emanuel, K.A.: “Sea-Air Transfer in Tropical Cyclones,” Proceedings of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Sapora, Japan, July 1, 2003.
“Scientists a step closer to steering hurricanes-schematics “, The Sunday Telegraph, October 21, 2007.
“Scientists: Killer Hurricanes May Someday Be Controlled With Soot”, Fox News, October 31, 2007.
“Activate Cloud Shield! Zap a Twister!”, Weird Magazine, January 2000.
“Ultra-thin ‘blankets’ cut reservoir evaporation”, New Scientist, November 2003
This link below shows interesting cycle of test patterns repeating series of varying arrays
Tesla Technology – http://www.mediafire.com/?7xn1eqog9b5au
Science & Engineering – http://www.mediafire.com/?gs2scvvhz6ww8
Chinas HAARP — The “meridian” :
Airplanes around airports CAUSE snow and rain NEARBY
video of the article “proof” that airplanes themselves cause weather formations… front page of Yahoo! news…
“Airplanes flying through super-cooled clouds around airports can cause condensation that results in more snow and rain nearby, according to a new study.
More weather modification links here:
Senate Bill S.601 – weather ‘mitigation’ bill – Sponsored by Senator Kay Bailey Hutchison and John Rockefeller
(did NOT pass in its current form) instead it was put to the Air force “Owning the weather 2025″ program :
Here is the “weather mitigation bill” co-sponsored in congress:
Weather Mitigation Research and Development Policy Authorization Act of 2009
quote from the bill linked directly above:
The following summary was written by the Congressional Research Service, a well-respected nonpartisan arm of the Library of Congress. GovTrack did not write and has no control over these summaries.
pictured below – example of a flash into the high RF from a ground based station — producing a “circle sweep” using VHF .. similar to the HAARP documents from Stanford speaking on ‘geometric modulation’ of a HF wave via a “circle sweep”.
NEXRAD RADAR sends pulses out very close to the same frequency HAARP operates on—– normally, NEXRAD RADAR operates on the GHz spectrum needed to make a “artificial ionospheric mirror in the ATMOSPHERE” to aid in relaying signals over the horizon from HAARP:
Note it says below in #1 .. from 0.0 to 12.4MHz for NEXRAD pulses:
“Short pulse output spectrum: -40 dB BW is 12.4 MHz, (-80 dB at +/- 62 MHz), -80 dB at +/- 19.6 MHz for congested areas(congested areas require transmitter output bandpass filter)”
The RDA is the information gatherer of the system–essentially the radar itself–and is composed of four primary components:
- Type: S-band, coherent chain (STALO/COHO), line modulator, klystron tube amplifier (53 dB gain typical)
- Frequency: 2700 to 3000 MHz
- Power: 750 kw peak at klystron output
- Transmitter to antenna loss: site dependent, 2 dB typical
- Average Power: 300 to 1300 watts
- Pulse Widths: 1.57 and 4.5 microseconds (-6 dB points)
- PRF short pulse: 318 to 1304 Hz
- PRF long pulse: 318 to 452 Hz
- Phase noise (system): -54 dBc required, -60 dBc typical
- Short pulse output spectrum: -40 dB BW is 12.4 MHz, (-80 dB at +/- 62 MHz), -80 dB at +/- 19.6 MHz for congested areas(congested areas require transmitter output bandpass filter)
- Type: center fed paraboloid of revolution 28 feet in diameter
- Polarization: linear horizontal
- Gain at 2850 MHz: 45.5 dB (including radome loss)
- Beamwidth at 2850 MHz: 0.925 deg
- First sidelobe: -29 dB (others less than -40 dB beyond 10 deg)
- Radome: fiberglass foam sandwich frequency tuned, 39 foot truncated sphere
- Radome two way loss: 0.24 dB at 2850 MHz
Pedestal Characteristics Pedestal Function Azimuth Elevation Steerability 360 deg -1 to +45 deg Normal Scan 360 deg +0.5 to +19.5 Max rotation rate 30 deg/sec 30 deg/sec Acceleration 15 deg/sec2 15 deg/sec2 Mechanical Limits 360 deg -1 to +60 deg Positioning Error (max) +/-0.2 +/-0.2 Pedestal Type: Elevation over Azimuth
- Type: Coherent (stalo/coho), first downconvert to IF, instantaneous automatic gain control and matched filtering, second convert for synchronous detection (I and Q input to A/D Converter)
- dynamic Range: 95 dB
- Intermediate Frequency: 57.55 MHz
- 3 dB bandwidth: 0.630 MHz
- 6 dB bandwidth: 0.798 Mhz
- System noise figure: 4.6 dB (540 Kelvin)
- Receiver Noise: -113 dBm ref to antenna
- Front end interference rejection filter: 0.5 dB BW: 700 kHz, 30 dB BW: 50 MHz, 60 dB BW: 200 MHz
- Optional interference detection, log amplifier based
- Signal Processor
- A/D Converter sample interval: 1.66 microsec, 602 kHz (approx)
- A/D Converter number of bits: 12
- Clutter Filter: infinite impulse response (5 pole elliptic)
- Suppression: 30 to 50 dB, user selectable
- Notch half widths: 0.5 to 4 m/sec
- Range increment: 250 m
- Azimuth increment: 1 deg
Now make note of what frequencies HAARP operates on: supposedly from 0.0 to 10MHz (from the same skeptic site as above about NEXRAD):
“…This is done by transmitting a focused beam of radio frequency energy, at between 2.8 and 10MHz, directly at a point in the ionosphere between 100 and 350 km in altitude, basically within the “E” layer. The energy focused in this area of the ionosphere lets the HAARP facility monitor the behavior of that area of the ionosphere during the test.”
Now make note of what GHz the tiltable “AIM” Artificial Ionospheric Mirror in the ATMOSPHERE…
look at pages 10 and 11 .. this paper says pulses can be emitted from below 20MHz to 24GHz:
download directly here: a227112
100 Torr. Pulsed measutemdnts were made at .992 GHz, 9.3-9.4 GHz and 24 GHz, While CW Were made at X ad L bands. Pulse lengths in the range of .2-204.s were used.the seed ionization Was produced by a radioactive source and the breakdown criterion was defined as the field at which the transmitted power is blocked during the last 5% of thepulse, which corresponds to reaching critical density.
After reading the above, I propose two hypothesis:
1. As the pulse from NEXRAD RADAR is generated —- it does indeed go from 0.0 MHz to about 12MHz…… therefore the pulse itself is indeed similar (or identical) to a pulse from HAARP…. a difference of 2MHz at the top end (which in miniscule in the scheme of power available at the facility) .
2. A high frequency pulse done under current GHz used by ground based NEXRAD can DOUBLE as a ground based heater….. used for multiple purposes:
here are the uses described for RADAR in the upper MHz range and GHz range:
|Band name||Frequency range||Wavelength range||Notes|
|HF||3–30 MHz||10–100 m||coastal radar systems, over-the-horizon radar (OTH) radars; ‘high frequency’|
|P||< 300 MHz||1 m+||‘P’ for ‘previous’, applied retrospectively to early radar systems|
|VHF||30–300 MHz||1–10 m||Very long range, ground penetrating; ‘very high frequency’|
|UHF||300–1000 MHz||0.3–1 m||Very long range (e.g. ballistic missile early warning), ground penetrating, foliage penetrating; ‘ultra high frequency’|
|L||1–2 GHz||15–30 cm||Long range air traffic control and surveillance; ‘L’ for ‘long’|
|S||2–4 GHz||7.5–15 cm||Moderate range surveillance, Terminal air traffic control, long-range weather, marine radar; ‘S’ for ‘short’|
|C||4–8 GHz||3.75–7.5 cm||Satellite transponders; a compromise (hence ‘C’) between X and S bands; weather; long range tracking|
|X||8–12 GHz||2.5–3.75 cm||Missile guidance, marine radar, weather, medium-resolution mapping and ground surveillance; in the USA the narrow range 10.525 GHz ±25 MHz is used for airport radar; short range tracking. Named X band because the frequency was a secret during WW2.|
|Ku||12–18 GHz||1.67–2.5 cm||high-resolution|
|K||18–24 GHz||1.11–1.67 cm||from German kurz, meaning ‘short’; limited use due to absorption by water vapour, so Ku and Ka were used instead for surveillance. K-band is used for detecting clouds by meteorologists, and by police for detecting speeding motorists. K-band radar guns operate at 24.150 ± 0.100 GHz.|
|Ka||24–40 GHz||0.75–1.11 cm||mapping, short range, airport surveillance; frequency just above K band (hence ‘a’) Photo radar, used to trigger cameras which take pictures of license plates of cars running red lights, operates at 34.300 ± 0.100 GHz.|
|mm||40–300 GHz||7.5 mm – 1 mm||millimetre band, subdivided as below. The frequency ranges depend on waveguide size. Multiple letters are assigned to these bands by different groups. These are from Baytron, a now defunct company that made test equipment.|
|V||40–75 GHz||4.0–7.5 mm||Very strongly absorbed by atmospheric oxygen, which resonates at 60 GHz.|
|W||75–110 GHz||2.7–4.0 mm||used as a visual sensor for experimental autonomous vehicles, high-resolution meteorological observation, and imaging.|
|UWB||1.6–10.5 GHz||18.75 cm – 2.8 cm||used for through-the-wall radar and imaging systems.|
———————————————-animated GIF of a typical high frequency flash (circle sweep / HAARP ring) .. a few days after this appeared — 7-10 inches of rain ended the drought in this area:
Summed up, ground based stations , NEXRAD RADARS can double as ground based “AIM generators” .. Also the pulses from NEXRAD RADARS can match frequencies sent from facilities like HAARP.
Either way, whether its for heating the area above the ground based station , or whether its used to mimic a HAARP type signal into the ionosphere — we are seeing the flashes on RADAR as the signals flash through the radio spectrum…. the signal goes from 0.0 to multiple GHz — and anywhere in between.
It would seem that our NEXRAD’s double as microwave heaters, and ATMOSPHERIC mirror generators… per the findings listed above.. the MHz and GHz capabilities do indeed match.